Technology Acceptance Model 2021 

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The human attitude is addicted to one thing or the other, as it is connected to the brain cells which is characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences. In our modern society, technology is one of the most common things around us and its influence on our lifestyle is undoubtedly huge.

What is technology?

This is defined as an applied science that deals with a branch of knowledge that uses techniques in the production of machinery and equipment development for practical purposes and the delivery of goods and services to humanity.

The term “technology” rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. The term’s meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into “technology.” In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between Technik and Technologie that is absent in English, which usually translates both terms as “technology.” By the 1930s, “technology” referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves.

In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that “technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them.” Bain’s definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists. Scientists and engineers usually prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use.

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The technology acceptance model (TAM)

Is an information systems theory that models or predicts how users come to accept and use new technology.  It indicates that there are only two components that determine the users’ acceptance of a computer system.TAM; according to Davis, 1989) has been one of the most influential models of technology acceptance, with two primary factors influencing an individual’s intention to use new technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with new technology, a number of behavioral intentions are a factor that influences their decision about how and when they will use it, notably perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the system. In other words, it underscores, for example, when a developer of a given technology believes that his or her system is friendly to the users. Inversely, the system will not be accepted by the users not unless the developers share the benefits and advantages of the technology system.

  • Perceived usefulness (PU) – This was defined by Fred Davis as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance their job performance”. It means whether or not someone perceives that technology to be useful for what they want to do.
  • Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) – Davis defined this as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort” (Davis 1989). If the technology is easy to use, then the barriers are conquered. If it’s not easy to use and the interface is complicated, no one has a positive attitude towards it.

 

With the massive development of innovation, individuals have a higher chance of utilizing novel technology in their everyday life and work. Indeed, researchers investigated and published a hypothetical model to clarify user’s information technology acceptance and use, for example, the theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behavior, as well as the technology acceptance model (TAM), and customer adoption of information technology in the direction of a unified view model. Among those speculations and models, “one of the broadly applied models of information technologies acceptance and employ is the TAM”. TAM was applied to clarify the customer acceptance of innovation utilized in a diverse environment setting.

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Perceived ease of use (PEOU) 

Perceived ease of use (PEOU) can be an indicator that influences students’ attitude to accept online learning as a new platform for their studies. PEOU is referred to if a student thinks the platform can be used easily then the platform will be useful and beneficial for them. It is consistent with Davis’s (1989) definition of PEOU as ‘one’s belief that using the system will be free of an effort’. To give an idea, the global pandemic coronavirus that struck in early 2020/2021 lead to great research by Taat and Francis conducting a study to examine the level of students’ acceptance of e-learning and identify factors that could influence it. This indicates that PEOU as a convenience factor is significantly influencing the students’ acceptance where the e-learning can provide them with good, detail, timely and accurate information. By doing this, students can access the sharing course materials easily and are subsequently accepting the online learning. 

 

Perceived usefulness (PU) 

Perceived usefulness (PU) also can influence students’ desire to use a new platform and subsequently influence the acceptance of online learning. Davis (1989) mentioned that usefulness is a concern with ‘how well a person believes that using a particular system will improve their performance’. As proof, Taat and Francis (2020) stated that e-learning improves learning performance, and taking an online course also can be increased their productivity. They showed a positive impact on the acceptance of e-learning that could enhance understanding and effectiveness of learning online. Johari (2015) found out that PU has significantly influenced students’ intention to use online learning and also influence students’ attitudes to accept online learning. Besides that, PEOU is considerable to influence PU of technology. Then as well, But the result showed that students were not be conceived as perceiving the usefulness of online learning.

 

Attitude and online learning

Attitude is the degree of interest related to the person’s actual behavior. A better attitude could increase the willingness person to accept new technology. It is highlighted in TAM that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness would be the factors that influence the attitude of the person in the adoption of the technology. Many previous studies on technology adoption have shown attitude as a good intention and a factor that creates room for acceptance of a new environment.

 

Importance of technology 

Technology has a protagonist role in the way current society works, up to the point in which it’s safe to say that the need it to maintain our modern lifestyle.it is one of the most important tools of mankind and the benefit it can give us are countless. It is just a matter of using it properly and doesn’t let it become a vice. 

Advantages of technology 

  • We can do many things without leaving our house, this can save a lot of time.
  • All the information you might need is from the internet.
  • Means of communication and transportation has improved 
  • There are more effective tools to use in the scientific study 
  • Fields like medicine gain a lot with top technology instruments used for the treatment and diagnosis of diseases of all kinds.
  • It helps us, as a society, to have a comfortable lifestyle.

 

Disadvantages of technology

  • Technology has made things so easy and people are getting lazy 
  • Society is becoming co-dependent on it.
  • It is a big source of distraction 
  • People don’t always use it for beneficial purposes.
  • The social network has generated a new type of anxiety 
  • The internet is causing health issues, as people are now sleepless, eating badly, and being exposed to screen almost all day. 

 

There are many important disadvantages that can make people feel like technology is bad, but technology does not control us as it is only a tool that mankind has developed for itself. This simply explains that if technology is bad or good it depends on how you use technology. 

 

Types of technology 

Technology has pervaded each industry and made another world. The utilization of technology has altogether impacted numerous zones. A considerable measure of upgrade and profitability has been acknowledged, therefore. Even though there are many negative and positive perspectives about new technology inventions, all that matters is the effect it has had on many developing enterprises.

 

Medical Technology

Medical Technology has spared a great number of lives. Medical technology such as An X-ray scanner, for instance, makes pictures of the tissues inside your body – even the mind! We do this to check for organ variations from the norm, search for dangerous tissue, spot-torn tendons, and numerous employments. It works by encompassing a man with a Goliath magnet. This adjusts the attractive particles in a man’s body. Different innovations are utilized to take pictures to incorporate CT scanners and X-beam machines. Some People with hearing hindrances can have this redressed using cochlear inserts.

Medicinal technology underpins and guarantees the coherence of life. Heart screens monitor a man’s pulse. You may have heard them beeping significantly on medicinal shows. We can likewise take a gander at how a man’s heart is working utilizing an EKG (or electrocardiogram) machine, which sends electrical heartbeats through a man’s body to check the heart’s electrical (nerve) movement. Specialists may utilize one to figure out whether they speculate a heart assault in a patient or check the impact of heart medicine.

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Administrative Technology

A great part of the concentration for training technology through the ’90s was on technology value as measured by understudy access to PCs. This alludes to hardware and different assets used to bolster regular endeavors in workplaces and office structures these incorporate printers, scanners, cell phones for communication, fax machines, equipment tools, new vacuum cleaners, PC and so on. Higher models of educational and business responsibility for playing out the instructing capacity will endeavor to enhance its value by getting technology into its system of operation. Government-funded schools and business entities now experience educators, for developing strategies to meet up the demands of society. Discovery shows in the administrative sector that working with technology helps an individual to explore and perform duties to his or her maximum capacity.

 

Instructional Technology

This is the process of executing instructions that are technology-driven for both online and offline learning. These incorporate TV, PCs, PC programming, the Web, tapes, and video recording gadgets. These instructions are executed and delivered at a pace at which a learner would be able to apply to solve a problem or develop their ideas in a structured and systematic way. All these are important because they convey information and impact in various ways. Experts also point out that instructional technology is not synonymous with digital training. Instead, it is a body of theory about a field of technology that has various characteristics including applied intellectual techniques, established disciplines, and academic value.

 

  • Instructional technology deals with the process of using technology for instruction
  • Describes the technologies that facilitate access to information of all types
  • Includes acquisition, processing, storage, and dissemination of information in all of its forms.
  • It also includes evaluation, management, and integration of instruction with the tools available.

Information Technology

Information Technology has been affecting society for a great many years. Smoke flags, the math device, composting, paper, pens, and the printing press were all once considered the bleeding edge of Information Technology because those advancements were the most recent and most prominent in correspondence. Information technology is building telecommunications networks for a company, creating and administering databases for companies and business organizations, helping employees troubleshoot problems with their computers or mobile devices, or doing a range of other work to ensure the efficiency and security of business information. today, it is broadly acknowledged that the front line of Information Technology lies in advanced interchanges. Similarly, as with all recorded Information Technology improvements, digital correspondence technology is progressive regarding society, business, protection, and culture. These advances show many noteworthy open doors additionally posture real difficulties.

Technology

IT deploys and maintains business applications, services, and infrastructure (servers, networks, storage);

  1. It monitors optimizes and troubleshoots the performance of applications, services, and infrastructure.
  2. oversees the security and governance of applications, services, and infrastructure.
  3. Help in product development and information.
  4. Help in marketing and market research with sales and invoicing 
  5. customer development and retention;
  6. Accounting information and taxes payment record.
  7. human resources and payroll; and regulatory compliance.

 

Computing has penetrated practically every part of business and much of our personal lives.

 

Frequently asked question 

Question 1.

What could cause one to be addicted to technology?

 

Answer 

The Perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness are the factors that make one be addicted to new technologies. 

 

Question 2.

Where is the best place to repair a computer in Nigeria?

 

Answer 

Computer repairers are everywhere but the best place to repair a computer is at Naijteck.com 

 

Question 3.

Can all technology devices be accepted for domestic use?

 

Answer 

Not all technology devices should be used for domestic consumption because some have a very high radiation emission which is harmful to human health.

 

Question 4

With the advancement in technology, will it help all students think with their brains and learn more deeply?

 

Answer 

Out of man’s brain, the idea of creating new concept of tech. came to reality which makes thinking ability indestructible. Technology does not prevent students from thinking and learning, rather it helps with accuracy and gives more options to finding solutions as well as create a platform for new ideas and learning.

 

Conclusion 

This study represents results in examining the use of the technology acceptance model to explain the factors that influence acceptance of online learning behavior. One of the important findings of this study is to encourage individual intention to accept technology as a new learning platform. Students’ acceptance behavior towards online learning has been influenced by mediating of attitude between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. In between, perceived usefulness can be directly hypothesized to online learning behavior. This is because online learning has become compulsory for all government schools and is considered a convenient platform to continue study during the Covid-19 outbreak. In the context of implementation, the current online learning practices will impact future education. Online education will help most people who are not educated to get involved as well as enhance the learning process. Obviously, valuable feedback from students and lecturers should be considered for the future development of online education since the learning methods in higher education institutions have drastically changed due to the Covid-19 outbreak worldwide. The feedbacks could motivate the university to enhance the quality of the online learning platforms for the future. 

Hope this was helpful

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Joseph Umoh

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